The UK’s independent authority set up to uphold information rights in the public interest, promoting openness by public bodies and data privacy for individuals.

An ICO spokesperson said:

“We understand how important A-level results and other qualifications are to students across the country. When so much is at stake, it’s especially important that their personal data is used fairly and transparently. We have been engaging with Ofqual to understand how it has responded to the exceptional circumstances posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, and we will continue to discuss any concerns that may arise following the publication of results.

“The GDPR places strict restrictions on organisations making solely automated decisions that have a legal or similarly significant effect on individuals. The law also requires the processing to be fair, even where decisions are not automated.

“Ofqual has stated that automated decision making does not take place when the standardisation model is applied, and that teachers and exam board officers are involved in decisions on calculated grades. Anyone with any concerns about how their data has been handled should raise those concerns with the exam boards first, then report to us if they are not satisfied.

“The ICO will continue to monitor the situation and engage with Ofqual.”