The UK’s independent authority set up to uphold information rights in the public interest, promoting openness by public bodies and data privacy for individuals.

Between a 12-month period from 1 June 2018 to 31 May 2019, a confirmed total of 4,098,841 direct marketing messages were sent by, or at the instigation, of American Express Services Europe Limited. These messages contained direct marketing material for which subscribers had not provided adequate consent.