Computers and many other devices, including smartphones and PDAs, can connect to the internet wirelessly using Wi-Fi. An unsecured Wi-Fi connection makes it easier for hackers to access your private files and information, and it allows strangers to use your internet connection.
These are general tips on changing your router and network settings. You may need to check the instructions for your wireless equipment for the technical details. If you need more guidance on checking or changing your settings, your Wi-Fi equipment supplier or internet provider will provide advice on their websites.
How do I check whether my network is secure?
Home Wi-Fi networks are typically created and accessed through a physical device called a broadband router – also known as a hub or wireless router. You will need to connect to your router to check its security settings. The most important of these settings are the administrator password, the wireless security key and encryption method. There are a number of ways to check what these settings are, including:
When connecting to your wireless network from any device for the first time, you will be asked for the wireless security key. If you have not previously changed it, this can usually be found somewhere on your wireless router, such as on the base.
If you are not asked for a key the first time you connect your device, then your wireless network is not secure. If you are required to provide a key then communication between your device and the wireless router will be encrypted. However, your wireless router may not be using the strongest encryption method available.
This method will require you to know the wireless router’s IP address, and the administrator’s username and password. Open your browser and enter the router’s IP address into the address bar (something like 192.168.1.1 or 192.168.1.254). You may need to refer to your user guide for more information. This guide on finding your router’s IP address may also assist if you are struggling with this step.
When prompted, enter the administrator’s username and password. Your router settings will allow you to find out whether your connection is already secured and will let you choose a more secure password.
You will also be able to change the administrator’s password.
How do I secure my network?
The following tips will help you to use your Wi-Fi more securely and to protect your personal information.
Change the wireless network’s default name
A Service Set Identifier (SSID) is a name used so you can identify your network. You should change the network name from the router’s default. This can make it harder for anyone to identify the manufacturer of your router and guess its default settings. For privacy reasons, you may also wish to avoid using a name that will identify you or your house (e.g. using a surname or something associated with your house) – instead use something more random.
Most modern devices will allow you to hide your SSID from casual observers, but this should not be considered as a security measure as there are numerous freely available tools which can still discover networks that are hidden in this fashion.
Encryption scrambles messages sent over wireless networks so that they cannot be read easily. If your network is not encrypted, enable encryption on the wireless security settings page of your wireless router. There are different forms of encryption, but we suggest that you use the Wi-Fi Protected Access II (WPA2) version because older forms such as Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and WPA have known flaws and do not offer appropriate protection. If you have a wireless access point that is capable of utilising WPA3 then this will be an even better choice, but this is a very new protocol at this stage, so support from devices is limited.
On some devices, the encryption method in use will be displayed alongside the name of your wireless network name when you try to connect.
Choose a strong password
Change your password from a default supplied with the router. Make sure you use a password which is easy for you to remember but would be difficult for a stranger to guess, and preferably something with a combination of letters and numbers. Avoid using something obvious such as the name of your street.
Check that your device does not auto-connect to Wi-Fi signals
If your device is set to automatically connect to available open Wi-Fi networks, then you run the risk of automatically connecting to unknown and potentially dangerous networks. You should switch off auto-connect on your device settings page – refer to the manufacturer’s instructions for more details.
Update the router
In the time since the router was shipped from the factory errors in the code it is running may have come to light. The manufacturer may have fixed these and made an update available. You should check the manual or the manufacturer’s website for further information on keeping your device up to date.